By Gordon Martel
A significant other to Europe 1900-1945 ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ, ИСТОРИЯ Издательство: Blackwell Publishing LtdСерия: Blackwell partners to ecu historyАвтор(ы): Gordon MartelЯзык: EnglishГод издания: 2006Количество страниц: 587ISBN: 978-1-4051-0664-1Формат: pdf (e-book)Размер: 4,35 mb RAPIDили IFOLDER zero
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Indeed, the century opened with the “thunder-clap” of another such survey – Seebohm Rowntree’s study of the outwardly prosperous city of York, which concluded that over 27 percent of the inhabitants were in fact living in poverty. Further research, conducted in the interwar period by social scientists, appeared to confirm the persistence of poverty despite widespread improvements in standards of living for many. Llewellyn Smith’s New Survey of London Life and Labour 1930–1935 argued that 500,000 Londoners were still living below a poverty line fixed in accordance with that used by Booth forty years earlier.
World War I had a considerable impact on the urban infrastructure (housing stock, transport networks, municipal services) of most of Europe. Lack of investment during the war created complications for planners throughout the 1920s and 1930s. However, the destruction wrought by World War II was of another magnitude altogether. Aerial bombardment quickly became the weapon of choice for strategists. This had grave implications for the cities of most combatant nations and for Germany in particular.
In fascist Italy, for example, youngsters from deprived backgrounds were seen as inherently predisposed to criminality, and hence the fascist police often used their increased powers to put “suspicious” youths into custody. Even among those who did not perceive explicit physical or hereditary links between the poor and criminality, distaste for the overcrowded and unsanitary conditions in which many of the poorest still lived meant that the morality of the poor was tainted by association. Richard Jervis, a senior police officer in the north of England, believed that “slums, drunkenness and crime are inseparable.
A Companion to Europe 1900-1945 by Gordon Martel