By Diana R. Kershaw (auth.)
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Extra info for Animal Diversity
Digested food reserves are stored in the form of glycogen and fat droplets within the endoplasm. Gaseous exchange and excretion As in Amoeba, gaseous exchange and the removal of nitrogenous waste takes place by diffusion through the pellicle. Urea and ammonia are the chief waste products. Osmoregulation Paramecium has both anterior and posterior contractile vacuoles in the innermost regions of the endoplasm, which empty through distinct pores in the pellicle; thus unlike the contractile vacuole of Amoeba they occupy a fixed position in the animal.
Like the sponges many cnidarians have a superficially plant-like appearance and as a result their true animal nature was recognized only comparatively recently. For many years they were called 'Zoophyta' (animal-plants) and thought to be intermediate between the plant and animal kingdoms. Part of the confusion was due to the presence of two structural types within the phylum. One, the polyp, is sessile. The other, the medusa , is free-swimming . The typical polyp is cylindrical in shape, attached at one end and with the mouth and tentacles placed upwards.
This armour, or theca, may be sculptured and in some forms may form long projections. Ceratium, an abundant constituent of marine plankton, has a single curved anterior extension and two curved posterior extensions, which serve as flotation devices. Other flotation devices in the protozoa may take the form of drops of oil secreted in the cytoplasm or a highly vacuolated endoplasm . Whilst the phytoflagellates are typically autotrophic, there are many exceptions. Peranema, a colourless freshwater euglenoid, feeds on a wide variety of living organisms including Euglena which it ingests through a greatly extensible cytostome.
Animal Diversity by Diana R. Kershaw (auth.)