Download e-book for kindle: Animal Groups in Three Dimensions: How Species Aggregate by Julia K. Parrish, William M. Hamner

By Julia K. Parrish, William M. Hamner

ISBN-10: 0521460247

ISBN-13: 9780521460248

Faculties of fish, flocks of birds, and swarms of bugs are examples of three-d aggregation. masking either invertebrate and vertebrate species, the authors examine this pervasive organic phenomenon via numerous disciplines, from physics to arithmetic to biology. the 1st part is dedicated to many of the equipment, frequently optical and acoustic, used to gather third-dimensional info over the years. the second one part specializes in analytical equipment used to quantify trend, staff kinetics, and interindividual interactions in the team. The part on behavioral ecology and evolution bargains with the capabilities of aggregative habit from the viewpoint of an inherently egocentric person member. the ultimate part makes use of types to clarify how team dynamics on the person point creates emergent development on the point of the crowd.

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Polarized light systems use the same principal as anaglyphies except that polarizing filters are used instead of color filters. The advantages are that color film can be viewed and light loss is minimal. 3. The geometric basis of stereovision. most versatile stereoviewing systems currently available is based on the polarized projection system. Using a high-resolution graphics monitor, interlaced images are projected through a synchronized liquid crystal shutter so that differently polarized images are consecutively presented to the viewer.

An additional criteria which describes the performance of a sonar imaging system is the range resolution, or accuracy in the judgment of distance. 9) where c is the speed of sound and / is the range-resolving capability of the system. A more sophisticated treatment of this topic takes into account the ability of the imaging apparatus to produce very short bursts of sound. Here, the temporal bandwidth of the transducer (BW) can be related to the shortest temporal pulse that can be created so that T = //BW.

1) and projecting a shadow image onto a recording device. 1) where the path integral dl is taken over the radiation path through the object and f(r) is the object density resulting in the attenuation of the radiation. In the easiest case, scattering will be small compared to attenuation and radiation will 20 Jules S. 1. Geometry for a transmission tomography experiment. propagate through the structure in a straight line. flline Here, the notation (B,i) line signifies that for a general projection, the integrals are computed along a line specified by 6 (view angle) and t (distance along the projection).

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Animal Groups in Three Dimensions: How Species Aggregate by Julia K. Parrish, William M. Hamner

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