By Daniel C. Hallin
Offering a framework for comparative research of the connection among the media and the political process, this booklet surveys media associations in eighteen West ecu and North American democracies. It identifies the imperative dimensions of edition in media structures and the political variables that have formed their evolution. It then pinpoints 3 significant types of media platforms improvement (the Polarized Pluralist, Democratic Corporatist and Liberal types) and explains why the media play a unique function in politics in every one of those platforms.
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Extra resources for Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics (Communication, Society and Politics)
Note that each of these can be seen in some sense as a single, quantitative dimension. That is, we can speak about high or low levels of press circulation, political parallelism, journalistic professionalism, or state intervention. But we shall also see that each of these dimensions is complex and that many more subtle qualitative distinctions become important as we begin to analyze concrete media systems. In many cases we will also introduce related, minor dimensions along which media systems may vary.
However, there are a number of other aspects of the structure of media markets that will enter into our analysis from time to time. One of these, closely related to the development of a mass circulation press, is the distinction between media systems characterized by a clear separation between a sensationalist mass press and “quality” papers addressed to an elite readership (Britain is the strongest example) and those that lack such stratification of the newspaper market (or where it is developed to only a limited extent), either because they lack a mass circulation press altogether or because they are dominated by newspapers that serve elite and mass readerships simultaneously.
By the late nineteenth century a contrasting model of political journalism was beginning to emerge, in which the journalist was seen as a neutral arbiter of political communication, standing apart from particular interests and causes, providing information and analysis “uncolored” by partisanship. This was often connected with the development of a commercial press, whose purpose was to make money rather than to serve a political cause, and that was financed by advertising rather than by subsidies from political actors.
Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics (Communication, Society and Politics) by Daniel C. Hallin