Download PDF by Louis Althusser: Machiavelli and Us

By Louis Althusser

ISBN-10: 1859842828

ISBN-13: 9781859842829

Notwithstanding in basic terms showing as an occasional reference within the Marxist philosopher’s oeuvre, Machiavelli was once an unseen consistent presence. including Spinoza and Marx, Machiavelli was once a veritable Althusserian ardour. Machiavelli and Us unearths why, and should be welcomed for the sunshine it sheds at the richly advanced considered its writer.

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Introduction: feedback on Political Philosophy
Lectures on Hobbes
I: Hobbes’s Secular Moralism and the position of His Social Contract
II: Human Nature and the nation of Nature
III: Hobbes’s Account of useful Reasoning
IV: The position and Powers of the Sovereign
Appendix: Hobbes Index
Lectures on Locke
I: His Doctrine of average Law
II: His Account of a sound Regime
III: estate and the category State
Lectures on Hume
I: “Of the unique Contract”
II: application, Justice, and the really appropriate Spectator
Lectures on Rousseau
I: The Social agreement: Its Problem
II: The Social agreement: Assumptions and the final Will (I)
III: the overall Will (II) and the query of Stability
Lectures on Mill
I: His perception of Utility
II: His Account of Justice
III: the main of Liberty
IV: His Doctrine as a Whole
Appendix: comments on Mill’s Social Theory
Lectures on Marx
I: His View of Capitalism as a Social System
II: His belief of correct and Justice
III: His excellent: A Society of Freely linked Producers
Four Lectures on Henry Sidgwick
I: Sidgwick’s tools of Ethics
II: Sidgwick on Justice and at the Classical precept of Utility
III: Sidgwick’s Utilitarianism
IV: precis of Utilitarianism
Five Lectures on Joseph Butler
I: the ethical structure of Human Nature
II: the character and Authority of Conscience
III: The economic climate of the Passions
IV: Butler’s Argument opposed to Egoism
V: intended clash among sense of right and wrong and Self-Love
Appendix: extra Notes on Butler

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Additional resources for Machiavelli and Us

Example text

15 Taken 36 MACHIAVELLI AND US directly from Polybius, it is a theory of the necessary cycle human history endlessly undergoes in passing from one form of government to another; a theory of the cycle - and no longer a typology - of governments, categorized under two rubrics: the good and the bad. Here is the cycle (I summarize its essentials). '[I]n the beginning of the world . . ' Human beings are 'few', 'scattered like beasts'. ' This was 'the era of combination into society'. Conflicts immediately arose between men, who 'set about making laws in order to avoid similar evils'.

Here is the cycle (I summarize its essentials). '[I]n the beginning of the world . . ' Human beings are 'few', 'scattered like beasts'. ' This was 'the era of combination into society'. Conflicts immediately arose between men, who 'set about making laws in order to avoid similar evils'. ' This was the first form of government: monarchy (1). I open a parenthesis to make two observations. The first is to underscore the thesis, seemingly unimportant when stated in passing, that at the origin of all governments (and, before them, every society) we find chance, which we cannot but relate to fortune in some way.

In effect, Machiavelli pretends to instruct rulers. But if he claims merely to state the facts, to provide an account of their actual practice, then what can he teach them that they do not already know? Rulers have always managed on their own, and they do not need a Machiavelli. Indeed, they can only be terribly inconvenienced by this intruder who confesses their shameful conduct and makes their secret practices public. As we examine this unusual text, the suspicion then arises that this private individual, who publicly instructs rulers in the art of dissimulation and guile in the government of men, is actually governing rulers by another cunning twist which, like Pascal's twist to madness, imparts to it the most innocent air in the world.

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Machiavelli and Us by Louis Althusser

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